源码解析.Net中Middleware的实现

前言

本篇继续之前的思路,不注重用法,如果还不知道有哪些用法的小伙伴,可以点击这里,微软文档说的很详细,在阅读本篇文章前,还是希望你对中间件有大致的了解,这样你读起来可能更加能够意会到意思。废话不多说,咱们进入正题(ps:读者要注意关注源码的注释哦😜)。

Middleware类之间的关系

下图也是只列出重要的类和方法,其主要就是就ApplicationBuilder类,如下图:

源码解析

1.在使用中间件时,需要在StartUp类的Config方法中来完成(.Net自带的中间件,官方有明确过使用的顺序,可以看文档),例如Use,Map,Run等方法,它们都通过IApplicationBuilder内置函数调用,所以我们先看ApplicationBuilder类的主体构造,代码如下图:

//这个是所有中间件的委托
public delegate Task RequestDelegate(HttpContext context);
public class ApplicationBuilder : IApplicationBuilder
{
    //服务特性集合key
    private const string ServerFeaturesKey = "server.Features";
    //注入的服务集合key
    private const string ApplicationServicesKey = "application.Services";
    //添加的中间件集合
    private readonly List<Func<RequestDelegate, RequestDelegate>> _components = new();
    
    public ApplicationBuilder(IServiceProvider serviceProvider)
    {
        Properties = new Dictionary<string, object?>(StringComparer.Ordinal);
        ApplicationServices = serviceProvider;
    }

    public ApplicationBuilder(IServiceProvider serviceProvider, object server)
        : this(serviceProvider)
    {
        SetProperty(ServerFeaturesKey, server);
    }

    private ApplicationBuilder(ApplicationBuilder builder)
    {
        Properties = new CopyOnWriteDictionary<string, object?>(builder.Properties, StringComparer.Ordinal);
    }

    public IServiceProvider ApplicationServices
    {
        get
        {
            return GetProperty<IServiceProvider>(ApplicationServicesKey)!;
        }
        set
        {
            SetProperty<IServiceProvider>(ApplicationServicesKey, value);
        }
    }

    public IFeatureCollection ServerFeatures
    {
        get
        {
            return GetProperty<IFeatureCollection>(ServerFeaturesKey)!;
        }
    }
    //缓存结果,方便读取
    public IDictionary<string, object?> Properties { get; }

    private T? GetProperty<T>(string key)
    {
        return Properties.TryGetValue(key, out var value) ? (T?)value : default(T);
    }

    private void SetProperty<T>(string key, T value)
    {
        Properties[key] = value;
    }
    //添加委托调用,将中间件添加到集合中
    public IApplicationBuilder Use(Func<RequestDelegate, RequestDelegate> middleware)
    {
        _components.Add(middleware);
        return this;
    }
    //创建新的AppBuilder
    public IApplicationBuilder New()
    {
        return new ApplicationBuilder(this);
    }
    //执行Build,构造委托链
    public RequestDelegate Build()
    {
        RequestDelegate app = context =>
        {
            var endpoint = context.GetEndpoint();
            var endpointRequestDelegate = endpoint?.RequestDelegate;
            if (endpointRequestDelegate != null)
            {
                var message =
                    $"The request reached the end of the pipeline without executing the endpoint: '{endpoint!.DisplayName}'. " +
                    $"Please register the EndpointMiddleware using '{nameof(IApplicationBuilder)}.UseEndpoints(...)' if using " +
                    $"routing.";
                throw new InvalidOperationException(message);
            }

            context.Response.StatusCode = StatusCodes.Status404NotFound;
            return Task.CompletedTask;
        };
        //后添加的在末端,先添加的先执行
        for (var c = _components.Count - 1; c >= 0; c--)
        {
            app = _components[c](app);
        }

        return app;
    }
}

根据上述代码可以看出,向集合中添加项只能调用Use方法,然后在Build方法时将委托全部构造成链,请求参数是HttpContext,也就是说,每次请求时,直接调用这个链路头部的委托就可以把所有方法走一遍。

  1. 接下来,看一下那些自定义的中间件是怎么加入到管道,并且在.net中是怎么处理的,源码如下:
public static class UseMiddlewareExtensions
{
    internal const string InvokeMethodName = "Invoke";
    internal const string InvokeAsyncMethodName = "InvokeAsync";

    public static IApplicationBuilder UseMiddleware<[DynamicallyAccessedMembers(MiddlewareAccessibility)]TMiddleware>(this IApplicationBuilder app, params object?[] args)
    {
        return app.UseMiddleware(typeof(TMiddleware), args);
    }

    public static IApplicationBuilder UseMiddleware(this IApplicationBuilder app, [DynamicallyAccessedMembers(MiddlewareAccessibility)] Type middleware, params object?[] args)
    {    
        //判断如果是以依赖注入的形式加入的中间件,需要继承IMiddleware,则不允许有参数
        if (typeof(IMiddleware).IsAssignableFrom(middleware))
        {
            if (args.Length > 0)
            {
                throw new NotSupportedException(Resources.FormatException_UseMiddlewareExplicitArgumentsNotSupported(typeof(IMiddleware)));
            }

            return UseMiddlewareInterface(app, middleware);
        }

        var applicationServices = app.ApplicationServices;
        return app.Use(next =>
        {  
            //检查是否有Invoke或者InvokeAsync方法
            var methods = middleware.GetMethods(BindingFlags.Instance | BindingFlags.Public);
            var invokeMethods = methods.Where(m =>
                string.Equals(m.Name, InvokeMethodName, StringComparison.Ordinal)
                || string.Equals(m.Name, InvokeAsyncMethodName, StringComparison.Ordinal)
                ).ToArray();
            //且不能超过一个
            if (invokeMethods.Length > 1)
            {
                throw new InvalidOperationException(Resources.FormatException_UseMiddleMutlipleInvokes(InvokeMethodName, InvokeAsyncMethodName));
            }
            //也不能等于零个
            if (invokeMethods.Length == 0)
            {
                throw new InvalidOperationException(Resources.FormatException_UseMiddlewareNoInvokeMethod(InvokeMethodName, InvokeAsyncMethodName, middleware));
            }
            
            var methodInfo = invokeMethods[0];
            //返回类型必须是Task
            if (!typeof(Task).IsAssignableFrom(methodInfo.ReturnType))
            {
                throw new InvalidOperationException(Resources.FormatException_UseMiddlewareNonTaskReturnType(InvokeMethodName, InvokeAsyncMethodName, nameof(Task)));
            }
            //获取Invoke方法参数
            var parameters = methodInfo.GetParameters();
            if (parameters.Length == 0 || parameters[0].ParameterType != typeof(HttpContext))
            {
                throw new InvalidOperationException(Resources.FormatException_UseMiddlewareNoParameters(InvokeMethodName, InvokeAsyncMethodName, nameof(HttpContext)));
            }
            //第一个参数是RequestDelegate
            var ctorArgs = new object[args.Length + 1];
            ctorArgs[0] = next;
            Array.Copy(args, 0, ctorArgs, 1, args.Length);
            //根据构造函数参数创建实例
            var instance = ActivatorUtilities.CreateInstance(app.ApplicationServices, middleware, ctorArgs);
            if (parameters.Length == 1)
            {   
                //如果是只有一个参数,直接根据实例Invoke方法,创建RequestDelegate委托
                return (RequestDelegate)methodInfo.CreateDelegate(typeof(RequestDelegate), instance);
            }
            
            //说明Invoke有容器注入的其他服务,则这个方法就是获取那些服务
            var factory = Compile<object>(methodInfo, parameters);

            return context =>
            {  
                //默认是请求的Scope容器,如果是null,则返回根容器
                var serviceProvider = context.RequestServices ?? applicationServices;
                if (serviceProvider == null)
                {
                    throw new InvalidOperationException(Resources.FormatException_UseMiddlewareIServiceProviderNotAvailable(nameof(IServiceProvider)));
                }
                //执行Invoke方法
                return factory(instance, context, serviceProvider);
            };
        });
    }

    private static IApplicationBuilder UseMiddlewareInterface(IApplicationBuilder app, [DynamicallyAccessedMembers(DynamicallyAccessedMemberTypes.PublicConstructors)] Type middlewareType)
    {
        //调用Use方法,将委托添加到ApplicationBuilder的内存集合里
        return app.Use(next =>
        {
            return async context =>
            {
                //获取中间件工厂类,从Scope容器中获取注入的中间件
                var middlewareFactory = (IMiddlewareFactory?)context.RequestServices.GetService(typeof(IMiddlewareFactory));
                if (middlewareFactory == null)
                {
                    throw new InvalidOperationException(Resources.FormatException_UseMiddlewareNoMiddlewareFactory(typeof(IMiddlewareFactory)));
                }
                //获取中间件注入的对象实例
                var middleware = middlewareFactory.Create(middlewareType);
                if (middleware == null)
                {
                    throw new InvalidOperationException(Resources.FormatException_UseMiddlewareUnableToCreateMiddleware(middlewareFactory.GetType(), middlewareType));
                }

                try
                { 
                    //调用InvokeAsync方法
                    await middleware.InvokeAsync(context, next);
                }
                finally
                {
                    //实际上没做处理,和容器的生命周期一致
                    middlewareFactory.Release(middleware);
                }
            };
        });
    }
}

根据上面的代码可以看出,根据不同方式注入的中间件,.Net做了不同的处理,并且对自定义的中间件做类型检查,但是最后必须调用app.Use方法,将委托加入到ApplicationBuilder的内存集合里面,到Build阶段处理。

  1. 上面介绍了自定义中间件的处理方式,接下里我们依次介绍下Use,Map和Run方法的处理,源码如下:
public static class UseExtensions
{
    public static IApplicationBuilder Use(this IApplicationBuilder app, Func<HttpContext, Func<Task>, Task> middleware)
    {
        //调用Use方法,添加到内存集合里
        return app.Use(next =>
        {
            return context =>
            {
                //next就是下一个处理,也就是RequestDelegate
                Func<Task> simpleNext = () => next(context);
                return middleware(context, simpleNext);
            };
        });
    }
}
public static class MapExtensions
{
    public static IApplicationBuilder Map(this IApplicationBuilder app, PathString pathMatch, Action<IApplicationBuilder> configuration)
    {
        return Map(app, pathMatch, preserveMatchedPathSegment: false, configuration);
    }
    public static IApplicationBuilder Map(this IApplicationBuilder app, PathString pathMatch, bool preserveMatchedPathSegment, Action<IApplicationBuilder> configuration)
    {
        if (app == null)
        {
            throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(app));
        }

        if (configuration == null)
        {
            throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(configuration));
        }
        //不能是/结尾,这个!.用法我也是学习到了
        if (pathMatch.HasValue && pathMatch.Value!.EndsWith("/", StringComparison.Ordinal))
        {
            throw new ArgumentException("The path must not end with a '/'", nameof(pathMatch));
        }
        //构建新的ApplicationBuilder对象,里面不包含之前添加的中间件
        var branchBuilder = app.New();
        //新分支里面的中间件
        configuration(branchBuilder);
        //执行Build方法构建分支管道
        var branch = branchBuilder.Build();

        var options = new MapOptions
        {
            Branch = branch,
            PathMatch = pathMatch,
            PreserveMatchedPathSegment = preserveMatchedPathSegment
        };
        //内部其实是检查是否匹配,匹配的话执行Branch,不匹配继续执行next
        return app.Use(next => new MapMiddleware(next, options).Invoke);
    }
}
public static class RunExtensions
{
    public static void Run(this IApplicationBuilder app, RequestDelegate handler)
    {
        if (app == null)
        {
            throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(app));
        }

        if (handler == null)
        {
            throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(handler));
        }
        //只执行Handle,不做其他处理,也就是管道终端,给短路了
        app.Use(_ => handler);
    }
}

上面的代码分别介绍了Use,Map,Run的方法实现,它们还是在需要将中间件加入到内存集合里面,但是对于不同的方法,它们达到的效果也不一样。

  1. 总结上面的代码可以看出,它执行完Build方法,把委托链构造出来之后,然后在每次请求的时候只需要将构造完成的HttpContext当作请求参数传入之后,即可依次执行中间件的内容,那么应用程序是如何构建ApplicationBuilder对象实例,又是在哪里调用Build方法的呢?我们继续往下看。
    我们知道在使用.Net通用模板的创建项目的时候,在Program里面有一句代码,如下:
Host.CreateDefaultBuilder(args)
//这个方法主要是构建web主机,如Kestrel,集成IIS等操作
.ConfigureWebHostDefaults(webBuilder =>
{
    webBuilder.UseStartup<Startup>();
});

追溯其源码的位置时,实际上它是作为了IHostedService服务来运行的,如果有不清楚IHostedService的小伙伴可以点击这里,先看下官方文档的解释和用法,看完之后你就明白了。我们再来看源码:

public static IHostBuilder ConfigureWebHost(this IHostBuilder builder, Action<IWebHostBuilder> configure, Action<WebHostBuilderOptions> configureWebHostBuilder)
{
    if (configure is null)
    {
        throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(configure));
    }

    if (configureWebHostBuilder is null)
    {
        throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(configureWebHostBuilder));
    }

    if (builder is ISupportsConfigureWebHost supportsConfigureWebHost)
    {
        return supportsConfigureWebHost.ConfigureWebHost(configure, configureWebHostBuilder);
    }

    var webHostBuilderOptions = new WebHostBuilderOptions();
    //下面两行执行的代码,是关于构建Host主机的,以后新的文章来说
    configureWebHostBuilder(webHostBuilderOptions);
    var webhostBuilder = new GenericWebHostBuilder(builder, webHostBuilderOptions);
    //执行自定的方法,例如模板方法里面的UseStartUp
    configure(webhostBuilder);
    //主要看这里,将其添加到HostedService
    builder.ConfigureServices((context, services) => services.AddHostedService<GenericWebHostService>());
    return builder;
}
internal sealed partial class GenericWebHostService : IHostedService
{
  public async Task StartAsync(CancellationToken cancellationToken)
  {
      HostingEventSource.Log.HostStart();

      var serverAddressesFeature = Server.Features.Get<IServerAddressesFeature>();
      var addresses = serverAddressesFeature?.Addresses;
      //配置服务地址
      if (addresses != null && !addresses.IsReadOnly && addresses.Count == 0)
      {
          var urls = Configuration[WebHostDefaults.ServerUrlsKey];
          if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(urls))
          {
              serverAddressesFeature!.PreferHostingUrls = WebHostUtilities.ParseBool(Configuration, WebHostDefaults.PreferHostingUrlsKey);

              foreach (var value in urls.Split(';', StringSplitOptions.RemoveEmptyEntries))
              {
                  addresses.Add(value);
              }
          }
      }
      //定义最终返回的委托变量
      RequestDelegate? application = null;

      try
      {  
          //默认StartUp类里面的Config
          var configure = Options.ConfigureApplication;

          if (configure == null)
          {
              throw new InvalidOperationException($"No application configured. Please specify an application via IWebHostBuilder.UseStartup, IWebHostBuilder.Configure, or specifying the startup assembly via {nameof(WebHostDefaults.StartupAssemblyKey)} in the web host configuration.");
          }
          //构建ApplicationBuilder
          var builder = ApplicationBuilderFactory.CreateBuilder(Server.Features);
          //如果存在IStartupFilter,那么把要执行的中间件放到前面
          foreach (var filter in StartupFilters.Reverse())
          {
              configure = filter.Configure(configure);
          }
          configure(builder);
          //执行Build,开始构建委托链
          application = builder.Build();
      }
      catch (Exception ex)
      {
          Logger.ApplicationError(ex);

          if (!Options.WebHostOptions.CaptureStartupErrors)
          {
              throw;
          }

          var showDetailedErrors = HostingEnvironment.IsDevelopment() || Options.WebHostOptions.DetailedErrors;

          application = ErrorPageBuilder.BuildErrorPageApplication(HostingEnvironment.ContentRootFileProvider, Logger, showDetailedErrors, ex);
      }

      var httpApplication = new HostingApplication(application, Logger, DiagnosticListener, ActivitySource, Propagator, HttpContextFactory);
      //启动服务
      await Server.StartAsync(httpApplication, cancellationToken);
  }
}

从上面可以看出,最终是作为IHostedService来运行的,而StartAsync方法,则是在Host.Build().Run()中的Run方法里面统一执行所有注册过IHostedService服务的集合,也就是在Run阶段才开始构建管道(读者可以自行看下源码,以后的文章我也会讲到)。

总结

通过解读源码可以看出中间件有以下特点:

  • 目前自定义的中间件要么需要继承IMiddleware(不能传递参数),要么需要构造指定规则的类。
  • Use不会使管道短路(除非调用方不调用next),Map和Run会使管道短路,更多的是,Run不会再往下传递,也就是终止,而Map可能会往下传递。
  • 委托链的构造是在Run方法中执行的,并且作为IHostedService托管服务执行的。

上述文章中所展示的源码并不是全部的源码,笔者只是挑出其重点部分展示。由于文采能力有限😊,如果有没说明白的或者没有描述清楚的,又或者有错误的地方,还请评论指正。

posted @ 2021-09-03 11:10  SnailZz  阅读(655)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报